Bean Day 2007 Highlights
March 30, 2007
Reflex, Permit Get Labels; KIH-485 Next?
After another Section 18 label for use in 2006, the herbicide Reflex (fomesafen, product of Syngenta) finally received full federal label registration, says NDSU extension weed specialist Richard Zollinger. Reflex controls annual broadleaf weeds including ragweed, kochia, and nightshade, including ALS-resistant weeds. It should be applied when target weeds are 1 to 4 tall.
Permit (halosulfuron, by Gowan) is a soil-applied herbicide (preemergence/preplant incorporated label only) that has also received a label for use on edible beans. It controls large-seeded broadleaf weeds including wild mustard, ragweed, sunflower, and cocklebur. It doesnt control common lambsquarters and is weak on large pigweed, however. There are crop rotation restrictions with some other broadleaf crops.
Field trial research last year near Hatton and Thompson showed excellent tolerance and safety in standard applications to major dry bean types (Ensign navy, Maverick pinto, Montcalm kidney, T-39 black). The trials showed excellent post-emerge safety too, data which may help obtain a future post label for Permit in dry beans.
Zollinger also discussed experimental results of a promising herbicide for dry beans, called KIH-485 (pyroxasulfone Kumiai America). Preliminary research indicates excellent safety on dry beans, with excellent grass and broadleaf weed control in coarse, medium, and fine textured soils and at lower rates of competitive products. As a soil-applied herbicide, however, it needs moisture for activation.
Desiccant research and information was reviewed by Zollinger as well, and will be featured in the summer issue of the Northarvest Bean Grower.
A New Chapter in Bean Breeding
A new chapter in dry edible bean breeding is underway at NDSU, with Juan Osorno as the new dry bean breeder. Osorno says that in many cases, a crop breeder steps into a program without the benefit of having the previous breeder on hand for input or questions. So Osorno says he is fortunate that longtime breeder Ken Grafton is still on campus. While Grafton is now director of the N.D. Agricultural Experiment Station, and Dean of the College of Agriculture, hes still a wealth of information on bean breeding.
Osorno says pintos and navies will be the main breeding focus, with black, great northern, red, and kidney receiving attention as well. Traits of greatest importance: yield, quality (seed color, shape, size, canning quality), plant architecture, and disease resistance.
Variety performance data is posted online at www.northarvestbean.org (under Grower information) and also at www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu/aginfo/variety/drybean.htm
Osorno says two pinto lines are set for release in 2007, pending review committee approval, and a new navy line also shows promise. These were developed under Ken Grafton and his breeding team; Osorno says it will take time to put his stamp on a bean line at NDSU. I just say, keep your eyes open. Thats one of the first things you do in a new job, just listen to people, and thats what Im doing, getting feedback.
Juan Osorno David Franzen
NDSU Updates Fertility Recommendations
Dry bean fertility recommendations in the past did not make allowances for changes in the price of nitrogen, or adequately consider contributions from soil N. Further, the response to N is greater for non-inoculated beans compared to inoculated. And despite setting a yield goal, actual dry bean yield can fluctuate above or below it. Thus, NDSU has updated its N recommendations:
" Inoculated dry beans: 40 lb N less credits
" Non-inoculated: 70 lb N less credits
" Irrigated low organic matter sands: Yield potential x 0.05 less credits (Split applications through the pivot recommended)
NDSU extension soil specialist David Franzen, who adjusted the recommendations after analyzing more than 30 site-years of trial data, urges growers to think more in terms of yield potential or yield tendency of their fields, rather than yield goal.
Further, he says management should drive N rate; the desire to reduce N rate should not drive management. Theres a difference. You understand your fields better than anyone, where inoculating works for you and where it doesnt, which soils might respond better to N than others. So when you look at these recommendations, have your management drive your nitrogen, not the N drive your management.
NDSUs revised fertility recommendations are published in the new NDSU Extension Publication, SF-720, revised December, 2006, online at: www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/soilfert.html
Uniformity Helps Minimize Harvest Losses
One of the factors that can reduce harvest losses can be traced back to planting uniform populations and maturities. NDSU area extension specialist Terry Gregoire says veteran growers have told him that the stand uniformity helps minimize shattering.
Gregoire coordinated a survey of dry bean fields during the 2006 harvest, to gain information that might help reduce harvest losses. Results will be summarized in the next issue of the Northarvest Bean Grower.
Ensuring Long-Term Access to Technology
Intellectual Property rights apply to books, movies, software, and designs. Crop technology is created material too, protected through plant patents and the federal Plant Variety Protection Act.
Chet Boruff, chief executive officer of the Association of Official Seed Certifying Agencies, says that to be eligible for PVP, a variety must be
" New not sold for more than propagation more than 1 year prior to the date of filing (4 years outside of U.S.)
" Uniform describable, predictable, and acceptable
" Distinct distinguishable from other varieties
" Stable remain essentially unchanged during repeated production cycles
Varieties approved for PVP are protected for 20 years, unless withdrawn by the owner. Boruff says federal law permits a producer the right to save enough seed for his own use. This does not apply to biotech or trait-protected seed such as Roundup-Ready. The PVP law prohibits a producer from selling excess seed, prohibits a buyer of grain to convert it to seed, and prohibits knowingly conditioning protected seed for an unauthorized use.
Protected varieties of dry beans and other crops can be found on the PVP Office web site, www.ams.usda.gov/Science/PVPO/PVPindex.htm - click public access databases and certificate status database.
Valor Label Doubtful for 2007
A label for Valor as a dry bean desiccant is waiting to be approved by EPA. Thus, its labeled use is doubtful for 2007, although full registration for use on dry beans is slated for the 2008 use season, according to Jim Gray, pesticide registration coordinator with the N.D. Department of Agriculture. Gray says a Section 18 exemption is unlikely, with other desiccant products (Aim, paraquat) already available.
Gray warned growers tempted by off-label use of Valor this season. Remember, theres no tolerance, no acceptable level of active ingredient established yet. If a batch of beans is tested, by a processor, elevator or FDA, and they find any detectable flumioxazin (the product ai), those beans are deemed unsafe to be used as a food or feed source, he says. So think not only about the risk as an individual farmer, but what it could do to the reputation of the dry edible bean industry.
He explained the Endangered Species Protection Program (ESPP), a new federal rule intended to better mitigate the risks of pesticide use to threatened and endangered species. The cornerstone of the ESPP will be the use of Endangered Species Protection Bulletins that will contain enforceable pesticide use restrictions beyond those found on a pesticide container label. Pesticide users must not only follow all pesticide use restrictions, directions, and precautions found on the pesticide container label, but also in their local County Bulletin, if one is available.
Information about these bulletins will become available on future pesticide labels.
Gray finished with an update on pesticide harmonization and North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) pesticide labeling. The goal is to have widespread use of NAFTA labels to allow U.S. growers to import and use lower-priced Canadian products, and vice versa. Regulatory barriers have been resolved, now its a matter of working with pesticide manufacturers to use the NAFTA labeling system. Far-Go will be one of the first products available with a cross border label. Others that look to follow include Gavel, Reflex, Clarity, Tanos, Betamix, Spinosad, and Everest.
The Bean Day Trade Show allows growers and bean industry
representatives to visit about new trends and products in dry
bean production and marketing.