Summary of 2002 Research Activities
April 15, 2003
Dry Bean Breeding Project
Dept. of Plant Sciences
North Dakota State University
1. At this point, we are in the process of making hybridizations for 2003. In the 2002 crossing program, we made approximately 680 unique crosses. We anticipate a number of hybridizations similar to the 2003 series. From these populations, we will plant some of the seed from these crosses in the greenhouse and perform some additional crosses (three-way and double-crosses) in order to combine desirable genes. Hybridizations are designed to match strengths and weaknesses of parents, improve maturity and yield potential, uniform seed size and shape, improve resistance to rust, white mold, viruses, and bacterial blights, and to improve canning and culinary quality.
2. In 2002, more than 600 F2 populations grown at Hatton, ND, and Perham, MN. From these populations, more than 5,000 selections. Seed from these lines were evaluated for desirable market traits and the best pinto and navy. Additionally, populations were advanced one generation using single pod descent because of water damage. More than 5,000 F2:4 plant rows were grown at Erie and Hatton, ND and Perham. From these rows, single plants selections were made from the best rows in the best families. These F4:5 selections will be evaluated in 2003 preliminary yield trials. Preliminary yield tests (PYT) were grown at Erie and Hatton included the pinto (168 entries), navy (152 entries), black (112 entries), great northern (40 entries), and small red (26 entries). The Black Bean AYT consisted of 12 entries grown at three locations. The pinto and navy advanced yield tests were grown at three locations (Erie, Hatton, and Johnstown). The pinto trial consisted of 42 experimental lines and checks, and the navy and black trials consisted of 34 lines and checks. The Great Northern yield trial had 16 entries and checks. All lines were evaluated for potential performance and adaptation, and the best lines were selected and harvested to obtain estimates of yield.
3. The pinto cultivar Maverick, released in 1996, continues to be the dominant pinto bean grown in the region and the U.S. The NDSU Extension Service estimated that Maverick accounted for more than 50% of the pinto acreage in ND last year.
4. I have identified three navy and two black beans for pre-release in the next few years. These lines possess excellent yield potential across a wide range of environments, combined with good disease resistance, erect growth habit, and excellent drydown. These materials were in the AYTs in 1999 and 2000 and continued to perform well in trials in 2001 and 2002. Seed increase of the navy bean lines began in WA in 2001 and continued in 2002. The three black lines are currently growing in New Zealand - harvested seed will be shipped directly to WA for continued seed increase in 2003. Based on canning tests, light and dark red kidney lines were average to below average and were not advanced.
5. Dry bean variety trials were conducted at Erie, Hatton, and Forest River, ND and kidney and cranberry bean trials were located at Perham and Park Rapids, MN. The Erie and Hatton variety trials include the national Cooperative Dry Bean Nursery, consisting of 34 pinto, navy, pink, great northern, kidney, black, and small red cultivars and experimental lines. The data from these trials are published in the Dry Bean Performance guide, by the NDSU Ext. Service.
6. The Uniform Dry Bean Rust Nursery (Fargo) and the National White Mold Nursery (Hatton) were grown to identify germplasm resistant to rust and white mold. Also, the Midwest Regional Performance Nursery, coordinated by North Dakota State University and consisting of 25 entries, was grown at Erie, ND. The objective of this nursery is to gain information on yield stability and adaptation of dry bean genotypes developed in the Midwest.
7. Continued effort is being directed toward developing pinto bean genotypes with acceptable seed characteristics coupled with architecture appropriate for the region. Selected lines are now being evaluated in advanced yield trials this year. Several of these lines are resistant to the bean rust races prevalent in North Dakota (field evaluation) and some carry the I, bc22, and/or the bc3 genes for resistance to BCMV. Combinations of these genes impart virtual immunity to all strains of this virus.
8. A root rot nursery was grown at Perham, MN. Included in this nursery were genotypes from around the world that may possess some resistance to root rot. Approximately 160 lines were evaluated. I evaluated kidney and cranberry bean populations and plant rows to allow for single plant selection for root rot resistance. More than 150 selections were made, many possessing excellent seed traits, but because of severe bacterial blight, seed of these lines and populations will be increased in the greenhouse. Because of this nursery, we began incorporation of root rot resistance from VAX 3 and VAX 5 into kidney bean. We currently are growing F3 populations in the greenhouse. We are focusing our efforts on transferring the multiple disease resistance traits from VAX 3 into kidney bean. Since these represent two different gene pools, transferring resistance into kidney from this desirable source may prove medium-to-long-term research. Selection within these populations will continue for appropriate seed type and for resistance to common bacterial blight and root rot.
9. Breeding efforts to improve market classes other than pinto and navy are continuing. These efforts are to provide the bean growers in this region with adapted cultivars of pink, dark red kidney, light red kidney, black, great northern, and small red, thereby allowing for greater diversification of market classes as market conditions dictate. This effort, however, remains small (<10%) when compared to effort devoted to the pinto and navy bean market classes.
10. Close cooperation exists between NDSU and USDA-ARS, Beltsville, MD to develop rust resistant dry bean germplasm. Lines developed from this cooperative effort are highly resistant to the rust races found in the United States. More than 200 lines were evaluated for adaptation and agronomic traits in the field.
11. Collaborated with Dr. Richard Zollinger, Plant Sciences Dept., NDSU. in helping establish and/or maintain field plots and collaborated with Dr. Peter Graham, Soil Science Department, University of Minnesota, to develop populations with high nitrogen fixing ability. We are also working with Dr. Phil Miklas, USDA-ARS on white mold resistance,Dr. George Hosfield, USDA-ARS on culinary quality genetics, and with Dr. Jim Kelly, Michigan State University, on anthracnose resistance
12. Assisted Dr. Rasmussen in evaluating the core collection for white mold resistance in the greenhouse and in developing populations to understand the genetic control of rust resistance in Compuesto Negro Chimaltenango (CNC). This exotic black bean from Guatemala has excellent rust resistance that is unique from other resistance sources. While not effective against all races, the rust resistance from CNC, when combined with other major genes already present in NDSU bean breeding material, provides essential immunity to almost all races present in the U.S. Other sources of resistance also are being evaluated and molecular markers to assist in selection of resistant lines are being developed.