Developing Multiple Disease Resistant Dry Edible Bean
April 15, 2003
K. F. Grafton
Plant Sciences Department
North Dakota State University
This project was funded jointly by the North Dakota State Board for Agricultural Research and Education (SBARE) and the Northarvest Bean Growers Association. The Dry Edible Bean Breeding Project at North Dakota State University routinely evaluates material for reaction to rust in both field and greenhouse nurseries. The information obtained from the rust evaluation allowed efficient selection of resistant lines to be made. These lines also were evaluated for bean common mosaic virus in the greenhouse. Information obtained from these evaluations allow for more efficient selection of materials being advanced in the winter nursery.
In separate research, approximately 600 plants from two populations were increased for future research on root rot. These materials were developed from the wide crosses VAX 5 X Montcalm (black X Dark Red Kidney) and VAX 3 X Redhawk (red X Dark Red Kidney). These are difficult crosses to make because of fertility barriers that exist between these two gene pools. These populations will be useful for yield studies, root rot studies, common bacterial blight studies, and studies on canning quality. We are continuing to increased in the greenhouse to obtain advanced generations for genetic studies using recombinant inbred lines.
Breeding lines were identified that possess some level of resistance to anthracnose. These lines represent materials that have one or both parents possessing resistance genes. In addition, parental lines that have been used in past crossing programs also were selected for testing. We have begun incorporating the C0-42 anthracnose resistance gene into pinto bean. This resistance gene provides for a broad range of resistance to a number of races of anthracnose, including all found in the U.S. and Canada.
Lines also are tested for reaction to white mold using the straw test. This test is useful to detect genetic resistance to the disease in most cases. Again, susceptible materials were discarded from the population. We were able to identify, in collaboration with Dr. P. Miklas, USDA-ARS, Prosser, WA, AN-37, a line developed at NDSU that provides an excellent level of resistance (not immunity) to white mold in a pinto-like seed type. This line has been tested across four white mold test environments (two each in 2001 and 2002 with heavy white mold pressure) and in all tests, had extremely low levels of white mold damage.
More than 600 unique F1 hybrids were made in the new Dry Bean Greenhouse using controlled hybridization techniques in 2002. The F1 seed produced will be planted in the greenhouse to produce F2 seed and also to serve as parents for additional hybridizations. Parental lines are selected to allow for genetic recombination between parents that possess strengths for different traits we want to combine desirable traits. The F2 progeny will be planted in the field at Hatton, ND, in 2003 and selected for pod load, adaptation, maturity, and absence of foliar disease.