April 14, 2005
Management: The adult is wedge shaped and pale green in color. Adults are very active, jumping or flying when disturbed. Nymphs are wingless. Both adults and nymphs will run backwards or sideways rapidly. Large numbers of adults may appear early in the season. Nymphs usually complete their growth on the leaf where they hatched, feeding on the underside of the leaf. Damage by leafhoppers is referred to as hopper-burn. Foliage becomes dwarfed, crinkled, and curled. Small triangular brown areas appear at the tips of leaves, gradually spreading around the entire leaf margin.
Threshold: The threshold for basing spray decisions is when an average of one leafhopper per trifoliate leaf is found. Do not let infestations and damage progress to the point that yellowing of foliage is easily detected.
Management: The bean aphid has not been a major pest in North Dakota, though it can be found. It is nearly black in color and 1/8 inch long. They feed along stems and the underside of leaves. Infestations may result in a build up of honeydew on leaf surfaces, promoting the growth of a black "sooty" fungus.
Threshold: No guidelines for control have been established for North Dakota.
Management: Armyworms are more of a problem in small grains and corn. Damage to dry beans can occur when their usual host plants become depleted. They are inactive during the day, resting under plant trash, clumps of grass or lodged plants. They feed at night by crawling up on plants and consuming foliage.
Threshold: Control of armyworms is recommended when 25 to 30% of the foliage is destroyed or if significant injury to pods is evident.
BEAN LEAF BEETLE
Management: This beetle can vary in color from yellow to reddish brown, and may have three to four black spots and a black border on the wing covers. Adults emerge from overwintering, moving into bean fields as the seedlings emerge. The white larvae develop in the soil, feeding on the roots and nodules. New adults emerging in July feed on foliage and pods. The injury to pods results in secondary infections by fungi and bacteria, causing rotting and discoloration.
Threshold: Due to low incidence of this insect in North Dakota, no local control guidelines have been developed. University of Missouri entomologists suggest treatment when 40 to 70% of the bean plants show feeding injury on one or more of the pods per plant.
Management: Most damage by cutworms occurs when bean plants are in the early stage of development. Damage consists of young plants being chewed off slightly below or at ground level. Some cutworm feeding injury may occur on foliage. Cutworms primarily feed at night. When checking bean fields for cutworms during the day, dig down into soil an inch or two around recently damaged plants; there you can find the gray to gray-brown larva.
Threshold: Treatment is warranted when one cutworm or more is found per 3 feet of row and the larvae are small (<3/4 inch long).
FOLIAGE FEEDING CATERPILLARS (Green Cloverworm, Cabbage Looper, Velvetbean Caterpillar, Thistle Caterpillar, and Alfalfa webworm)
Management: Populations of these caterpillars have been negligible in North Dakota and little treatment to control them has been required. The exception was the 2001 growing season when many of these caterpillars affected bean fields. Sampling for these insects is accomplished through the use of a drop cloth or a vertical beat sheet, placed between two rows of plants. The larvae are dislodged from the plants and counted on the cloth or collection tray to arrive at an estimate of the number per row feet.
These caterpillars are green with two, narrow, white stripes down the side. When mature, the worms are 1 ¼ inches long. These caterpillars have only three pairs of fleshy prolegs on the abdomen, plus the pair on the back tip. When moving, the worms move by arching the middle of the body, or "looping". Young worms scrape leaf tissue creating a transparent skin, or "window", on the leaf surface. Older clover worms eat holes in the leaves.
These caterpillars are light to dark green with lighter colored stripes, along the side and on the top, running the length of the body. When mature, the worms are 1 ½ inches long. These caterpillars have only two pairs of fleshy prolegs on the abdomen, plus the pair on the back tip. When moving, the caterpillars move by arching the middle of the body, or "looping". These worms feed on leaves on the interior and lower portion of the plant. As defoliation occurs, worms feed higher in the plant. Feeding injury is similar to the cloverworm.
This insect does not overwinter in the region, instead, moths migrate from southern locations. These caterpillars have dark lines bordered by lighter colored, narrower lines running the length of the body. The background color ranges from a pale yellow-green to brown or black. These larvae have four pairs of fleshy prolegs to distinguish them from the cloverworm and the looper. Young velvetbean caterpillars feed on the underside of leaves in the upper portion of the plant. Older larvae consume the entire leaf, except for the leaf veins.
This insect is the larva of the butterfly known as the Painted Lady. This butterfly does not overwinter in the region, but migrates from southern locations each spring. These caterpillars are brown to black in color with yellow stripes along each side of the body. They are covered with spiny-hairs that give the caterpillar a prickly appearance. Full grown larvae are about 1 ½ inches long. The caterpillars feed on the leaves, webbing them together at the feeding site.
These larvae are 1-inch long when full grown. They are greenish to nearly black with a light stripe that runs down the middle of the back. There are three dark spots, each with hairs, on the side of each segment. These larvae feed for about 3+ weeks. Infestations are characterized by light webbing over the leaves. Beneath the web is where the larvae feed, consuming the leaves. These larvae move very rapidly, forward or backward, when disturbed.
Threshold: Control of these different caterpillars is normally not warranted until greater than 30% of the foliage is destroyed. This usually requires an average infestation of 10 to 15 larvae per row foot.
Management: In the northern plains, grasshopper egg hatch normally begins in late April to early May. Most grasshoppers emerge from eggs deposited in uncultivated ground. Bean growers should expect to find grasshoppers feeding first along bean field margins adjacent to these sites. Later infestations may develop when grasshopper adults migrate from harvested small grain fields. Grasshoppers will attack leaves and pods, creating holes. Due to these migrations, bean fields become sites for significant egg laying.
Thresholds: Grasshopper control is advised whenever 20 or more adults per square yard are found in field margins or 8 to 14 adults per square yard are occurring in the crop.
SEED CORN MAGGOT
Management: Seed corn maggot attack bean seed, preventing sprouting or weakening seedlings. The yellowish white maggot is found burrowing in the seed or emerging stem. The adult flies emerge in spring when soil temperatures reach 50. They deposit eggs in soil where there is abundant organic matter and decaying crop residue, or on the seed or seedling. Seed corn maggots are usually most severe in wet, cold seasons and on high organic matter soils.
Thresholds: When conditions are wet and cool or planting into high crop residue conditions, seed treatments will provide the best defense against injury.