Dry Bean Breeding Program Research Report 2007
March 07, 2008

NDSU - Dry Bean Breeding Program

Dry Bean Improvement for the Northern Plains Research Report 2007

 

Prepared by

Juan M. Osorno and Gonzalo Rojas-Cifuentes

 

Project Leader:   Dr. Juan Manuel Osorno

Research Associate: Dr Gonzalo A. Rojas-Cifuentes

Research Specialist: Albert J. Vander Wal

 

I - Objectives

          The objective of the dry bean breeding program at North Dakota State University is to develop high yielding, high quality bean genotypes adapted to the Northern Great Plains. This involves many characteristics of dry beans and different disciplines of research (e.g. genetics, pathology, physiology, nutrition etc.). The main priority is to improve pinto, navy, and black market classes, but also great northern, kidney, red and pink market classes are important part of our breeding program. Crosses involve adapted cultivars grown in the Northern Plains, breeding lines developed at NDSU, and germplasm possessing desirable traits from other breeding programs. Unadapted germplasm lines from other sources are evaluated for desirable traits and introgressed into adapted material.  Each year, the breeding program evaluates material from around the world as possible sources of resistance to white mold, rust, root rot, anthracnose, virus, and bacterial blights, among others.

 

II- 2007 Season

          After several years of climatic constraints in our region, the 2007 growing season can be considered as normal in terms of environmental conditions, with no extreme adverse conditions. This allowed obtaining excellent yields not only for dry beans, but also for most of the crops grown in the region. Likewise, NDSU dry bean field trials showed excellent performance for most genotypes and allowed to gather a lot of genetic and agronomic information. In previous years, at least one location was always lost due to extreme weather (flood, drought, frost, among others). In 2007, all our locations and trials were harvested, which reflects the favorable conditions during the season.

 

III - 2007 Research Activities

 

Locations and Trials

During 2007 growing season 56 experiments and early-generation breeding material were planted at 6 locations in North Dakota, and at 2 locations in Minnesota. Total area in all these trials was around 36 acres (9,000 plots). Additionally, several other variety trials were planted at the ND Research and Extension Centers (REC) across the state. By petition of the bean growers from Dickey County, we added two variety trials at the Oakes REC. We hope to keep doing more trials at this location in the future.




















 












The new pinto variety, Lariat, released this year, has an upright architecture,
allowing for good air movement between rows, and the potential for direct combining.


North Dakota Locations and Trials:

 

Carrington (REC)

Pinto Advanced Yield Trial (32 lines)

Navy Advanced Yield Trial (10 lines)

Black Advanced Yield Trial (10 lines)

Great Northern & Red Advanced Yield Trial (10 lines)

Black Preliminary Yield Trial 1 (169 lines)

Black Preliminary Yield Trial 2 (100 lines)

F3 plant rows Pinto, Great Northern, Red, Navy and Black (624 rows)

F3 06 plant rows Navy and Black (174 rows)

F4 Plant Rows Pinto and Great Northern (273 rows)

F6 Plant Rows Great Northern, Navy, and  Black (1170 rows)

 

Johnstown (Jim Karley)

Pinto Advanced Yield Trial (32 lines)

Navy Advanced Yield Trial (10 lines)

Black Advanced Yield Trial (10 lines)

Great Northern & Red Advanced Yield Trial (10 lines)

Midwest Regional Performance Nursery  (23 lines)

 

Forest River (Brian Shanilec)

Pinto Variety Trial (22 lines)

Navy Variety Trial (19 lines)

 

Hatton (2 sites: Glen & Tim Skjoiton and Mark Sletten)

Pinto Variety Trial (29 lines)

Navy Variety Trial (21 lines)

Miscellaneous Variety Yield Trial (16 lines)

Pinto Advanced Yield Trial (32 lines)

Navy Advanced Yield Trial (10 lines)

Black Advanced Yield Trial (10 lines)

Great Northern & Red Advanced Yield Trial (10 lines)

Pinto Preliminary Yield Trial (196 lines)

Great Northern Preliminary Yield Trial (121 lines)

Red Preliminary Yield Trial (64 lines)

Navy Preliminary Yield Trial (36 lines)

Black Preliminary Yield Trial 1 (169 lines)

Black Preliminary Yield Trial 2 (100 lines)

F3 plant rows Pintos, Great Northern, Red, Navy and Black (624 rows)

F3 06 plant rows Navy and Black (174 rows)

F4 Plant Rows Pinto and Great Northern (273 rows)

F6 Plant Rows Great Northern, Navy, and  Black (1170 rows)

 

Prosper (REC)

Pinto Variety Trial (18 lines)

Navy Variety Trial (16 lines)

Miscellaneous Variety Trial (10 lines)

Pinto Advanced Yield Trial (32 lines)

Navy Advanced Yield Trial (10 lines)

Black Advanced Yield Trial (10 lines)

Great Northern & Red Advanced Yield Trial (10 lines)

Pinto Preliminary Yield Trial (196 lines)

Great Northern Preliminary Yield Trial (121 lines)

Red Preliminary Yield Trial (64 lines)

Navy Preliminary Yield Trial (36 lines)

USDA (Phil Miklas) Yield Trial (42 lines)

 

Oakes (REC)

Pinto Variety Trial (4 lines)

Navy & Black Variety Trial (5 lines)

 

Minnesota Locations and Trials:

 

Park Rapids (Mike Beelner)

Miscellaneous Variety Trial (28 lines)

Kidney Advanced Yield Trial (32 lines)

 

Perham (Mark Dombeck)

Miscellaneous Variety Trial (20 lines)

Kidney Advanced Yield Trial (32 lines)

Puerto Rico Root Rot Trial (6 lines)

 

Disease Testing -   During 2007, 32 lines from the Pinto Advanced Yield Trial were sent to USDA-Beltsville for rust screening. A set of 20 lines were sent to USDA-Prosser for evaluation to BCMV. Five germplasm lines from Puerto Rico were also evaluated for root rot in the field. Natural pressure of common bacterial blight at Prosper allowed the identification of lines with some level of tolerance or resistance. In the same way, natural pressure of white mold at Hatton also permitted to observe differences among lines, particularly within the Pinto Variety Trial.

 

Winter Nurseries - In January, 2100 lines were planted at Puerto Rico for selection. Approximately 25% was discarded due to poor performance and disease and the rest was brought back and planted at Hatton for more visual selection. More recently, another set of 1118 lines were planted during last December at Puerto Rico again, including early-generation material of pintos, great northerns, navys, reds, pinks, and blacks. Seed increases of new pinto lines for release (Lariat and Stampede) were made at New Zealand, allowing gaining one year in the seed production process of these two lines.

 

Crossing block - The first crossing block from the new dry bean breeder was made, including crosses among several advanced breeding lines, commercial varieties and germplasm with traits of interest. Production of F1 seed was low due to technical problems in the greenhouse. In spite of this, a total of 34 F1 crosses are being grown in the greenhouse and are expected to be planted on the next season in the field.

 

Training & EducationStudents are an important component of the project, which allows a relation of mutual benefit since they help in the routine activities and at the same time, they learn about the management and genetic principles involved in a breeding program. This is of key significance in order to guarantee the future generation of plant breeders. In 2007, two summer internships (one from North Dakota and one from Puerto Rico) were part of the project, as well as students from other NDSU departments whom helped in the daily activities of the project.

 

III - Results 

A total of 3,648 test plots of advanced and preliminary yield trials were harvested. In advanced yield trials, 32 pinto, 14 navy, 10 black, and 10 great northern and red bean lines were tested

 

For the variety trials, 532 test plots were harvested including pinto, navy, and miscellaneous trials.

 

More than 2,000 single plant selections from breeding trials were made and harvested from F3 and F4 plant rows.

 

A total of 357 row selections from breeding trials were made and bulk-harvested from F6 plant rows.

 

After extensive testing in several trials in and out of North Dakota, two new pinto lines (Lariat and Stampede) are being released.

 

IV  Further Steps 

Several advanced experimental lines will be increased and screened for diseases at NDSU greenhouse facilities. Besides yield and agronomic performance, breeding for disease resistance will continue to be one of the main priorities in the program.

 

Selection of early and advanced experimental lines will permit to reduce the size of the field trials to something more manageable given the personnel and resources available.

 

A navy line has shown very good performance in the field trials and shows good seed quality and disease resistance. Therefore it will be presented at the release committee for approval.

 

A new Masters student will start doing research on yield losses in direct combining and its relationship with plant architecture.

 

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